promoting the sustainable and responsible use of cobalt in all forms


Currently the most popular technology of the battery sector is that of the lithium-ion battery. Compared to other battery types lithium-ion batteries have superior energy, power density and superior cycling ability. It is these qualities which are important in their use in electric and hybrid vehicles as well as energy storage systems used in renewable energy farms.

Although NiMH batteries have been used within electronic vehicles in the past, the higher energy density of lithium-ion batteries makes them first choice for the manufacture of new electronic vehicles.

Lithium-ion chemistry

The chemistry of lithium-ion batteries remains similar across the many different types; Lithium-ions are transported from the negative anode to the positive cathode during discharge via an organic electrolyte. The anodes across different lithium ion technologies remain similar in being comprised from graphite. The differences occur in the cathode which contain varying concentrations of cobalt, nickel or manganese. All the different cathode types allow high levels of lithium insertion and intercalation resulting in large quantities of energy storage.

Click on the lithium-ion battery type below for further information:

Name Battery Type
Cathode LiCoO2 LiNiCoAlO2 LiNiMnCoO2
Voltage (V) 3.7-3.9 3.65 3.8-4.0
Specific energy (capacity Wh/Kg) 150-240 200-300 150-220
Cycle life 500-1000 500 1000-2000
Thermal runaway (oC) 150 150 210
Applications Mobile phones, tablets, laptops, cameras Medical devices, electric powertrain, industrial E-bikes, medical devices, electric vehicles, industrial